N. Aftab, Z. Aboulbanine, P. Boonpornprasert, G.Z. Georgiev, J. Good, M. Groß, A. Hoffmann, M. Krasilnikov, X.-K. Li, A. Lueangaramwong, R. Niemczyk, A. Oppelt, H.J. Qian, C.J. Richard, F. Stephan, G. Vashchenko
DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
KCL, London, United Kingdom
Methodical studies to improve the longitudinal phase space (LPS) tomography of space-charge dominated electron beams were carried out at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ). An analytical model was developed to quantify mean momentum, RMS energy spread, bunch length and phase advance. Phase advance analysis determined the booster phase scan range and step size to be used for obtaining momentum projections. A slit was introduced before the booster to truncate the beam in transverse plane to strongly reduce the space charge effects. The signal resolution of this truncated beam was improved by careful beta function control at the reference screen of the momentum measurements. The reconstruction algorithm was changed from Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) to Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (ISRA) owing to its assurance of non-negative solutions. In addition, the initial physically justified assumption of LPS, based on low-energy section measurements, was established to clear out noise-like artefacts. This paper will highlight the improvements made in the LPS tomography and compare the simulated and experimental results.
The beam quadrupole moment of stored beams can be measured with a four-plate quadrupole pick-up. The frequency spectrum of the quadrupole moment contains not only the usual first-order dipole modes (the betatron tunes) but also the second-order coherent modes, comprising of (1.) (even) normal envelope modes, (2.) odd (skew) envelope modes and (3.) dispersion modes. As a novel diagnostic tool, the measured frequencies and amplitudes provide direct access to transverse space charge strength through the tune shift as well as linear coupling (and mismatch thereof), along with the benefit of a non-invasive beam-based measurement. Technically, quadrupole moment measurements require a pick-up with non-linear position sensitivity function. We discuss recent developments and depict measurements at the GSI SIS18 heavy-ion synchrotron.
University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Standard beam position monitors (BPM) are intrinsically insensitive to beams with no temporal structure, so-called DC beams, which many CERN experiments rely on. We therefore propose a novel detection technique in which the usual BPM electrodes are replaced with electro-optic (EO) crystals. When exposed to an electric field, such crystals change their optical properties. This can be exploited to encode the electric field magnitude onto the polarisation state of a laser beam crossing the crystal. An additional EO crystal, placed outside the vacuum chamber, can be used to control the system’s working point and to introduce a sinusoidal modulation, allowing DC measurements to be performed in the frequency domain. This contribution presents the working principle of this measurement technique, its known limitations, and possible solutions to further increase the system’s performance. Analytical results and simulations for a double-crystal optical chain are benchmarked against the experimental data taken on a laboratory test bench.