Electro-Optical BPM Development for High Luminosity LHC
S.M. Gibson, A. Arteche
Royal Holloway, University of London, Surrey, United Kingdom
T. Lefèvre, T.E. Levens
CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
An Electro-Optic Beam Position Monitor (EO-BPM) is being developed as a high-frequency (up to 10 GHz) diagnostic for crabbing and Head-Tail intra-bunch detection at the HL-LHC. Following an earlier prototype at the SPS that demonstrated single-pickup signals, an upgraded design of an interferometric EO-BPM has been beam-tested at the HiRadMat facility for validation and characterisation studies. In the new design, the fibre-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer arms are modulated by lithium niobate waveguides integrated in an upgraded opto-mechanical arrangement that has been developed to produce a highly magnified image field replica of the passing Coulomb field. A new detection technique that is directly sensitive to the interferometric optical difference signal from opposite EO buttons has been applied to measure single-shot bunches for the first time. A transverse resolution study over a ±20 mm range at 3 GHz bandwidth produced the first successful electro-optic bunch-by-bunch position measurement at the HiRadMat in-air extraction line. The results of this campaign show promise for an in-vacuum design that is in production for beam tests at the SPS during Run-3 of the LHC.
The beam quadrupole moment of stored beams can be measured with a four-plate quadrupole pick-up. The frequency spectrum of the quadrupole moment contains not only the usual first-order dipole modes (the betatron tunes) but also the second-order coherent modes, comprising of (1.) (even) normal envelope modes, (2.) odd (skew) envelope modes and (3.) dispersion modes. As a novel diagnostic tool, the measured frequencies and amplitudes provide direct access to transverse space charge strength through the tune shift as well as linear coupling (and mismatch thereof), along with the benefit of a non-invasive beam-based measurement. Technically, quadrupole moment measurements require a pick-up with non-linear position sensitivity function. We discuss recent developments and depict measurements at the GSI SIS18 heavy-ion synchrotron.
Beam-Based Calibration of Sextupole Magnet Displacement with Betatron Tune Shift
S. Takano, T. Fujita, K. Fukami, H. Maesaka, M. Masaki, K. Soutome, M. Takao, T. Watanabe
JASRI, Hyogo, Japan
K. Fukami, T. Hiraiwa, H. Maesaka, K. Soutome, S. Takano, H. Tanaka, T. Watanabe
RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo, Japan
QST, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
The alignment of sextupole magnets is one of the critical issues for the upcoming 4th generation light sources and future colliders. The alignment error of magnets and the beam offsets in sextupoles should be within a few 10 µm rms to ensure enough dynamic aperture for stable operation and minimize deterioration of beam quality. Considering that the quadrupole field in a sextupole is proportional to the displacement (normal Q for horizontal and skew Q for vertical), we propose a beam-based calibration (BBC) method to measure the sextupole centers by observing the betatron tune shift. The magnetic center is the point where the tune does not change regardless of the sextupole field strength. The key is increasing the XY coupling to obtain a tune shift large enough for the vertical calibration. We studied experimentally the feasibility of the sextupole BBC at SPring-8 and successfully demonstrated the principle for both horizontal and vertical calibration. The tune shift was monitored by bunch-by-bunch feedback electronics with approximately 1e-5 resolution. The measurement resolution of the sextupole center was approximately 10 µm std., which was sufficient for our requirement.